Physicians and other regulated health professionals have a duty to act in the best interests of their patients, an obligation that has always been viewed as being generally incompatible with any sort of sexual relationship between health care providers and patients. Under the Regulated Health Professions Act, Ontario takes a zero tolerance approach to sexual activity between patients and health care providers, and it’s no defence to argue that a sexual relationship between a patient and a provider is consensual. All sexual acts, including “behaviour and remarks of a sexual nature” come within the definition of “sexual abuse”, though the concept “of a sexual nature” excludes touching, behaviour, or remarks of a clinical nature appropriate to the service provided.
The Health Professions Procedural Code provides for mandatory revocation of a regulated health professional’s certificate of registration for certain instances of sexual abuse – if the abuse comes within a defined list of sexual acts, revocation must result. For sexual abuse that does not involve these acts, the penalty is at the discretion of the Discipline Committee. If a provider’s certificate of registration has been revoked, the provider can’t apply for re-instatement for 5 years.
The mandatory revocation provisions have been challenged in the Court of Appeal several times since they took effect in December of 1993. This month the Divisional Court affirmed the legislative scheme, and specifically the mandatory revocation sections, as being constitutional. The Court affirmed that there is no constitutional right to practise a profession; that a revocation of a professional license is not a deprivation of an individual’s liberty (and therefore not contrary to section 7 of the Charter) and that the ordeal of undergoing disciplinary proceedings (and the related media storm) is not a violation of a provider’s security interests (also protected under section 7 of the Charter).
Over the years, some providers have argued in court that the zero tolerance provisions are too broad because they include spouses, and sexual relationships that pre-date the professional relationship, and certain exemptions with respect to spousal relationships have been added to the Act. A spousal exemption enacted in 2013, to permit treatment of spouses where the profession makes a regulation to that effect, gave rise to a novel defence in a recent abuse case.
In Sliwin v CPSO, the provider argued that his multi-year extra-marital relationship, conducted clandestinely in his office, in exchange for free (and major) cosmetic surgery, was tantamount to a spousal relationship, even though they did not cohabit. The court rejected this argument, holding that the exemption is specific, unambiguous and narrowly drafted to include only spouses, as defined in the Family Law Act (which includes married and common law spouses), and only sexual relationships that occur when the provider is not engaged in the practice of the profession.
Zero tolerance for sexual abuse is now an entrenched principle, and in some ways is becoming even more strict. The Ontario government has recently proposed changes to expand the list of defined sexual acts which, once proven, will require mandatory revocation; the proposed changes will also require suspension of a professional’s privilege to practise where outright revocation is not mandatory. Debates about these changes, embodied in Bill 87, the Protecting Patients Act, began on March 27, 2017. As of April 13, 2017, the Bill is at second reading and has been referred to the Standing Committee of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario.
While the Bill expands the grounds for mandatory revocation, and increases fines for failures to report instances of sexual abuse of patients, the proposed amendments would introduce temporal parameters around the meaning of “patient”. In Bill 87, a patient remains a patient for one year after the end of the patient-provider relationship. Additional criteria for defining “patient” may be set out in a government regulation. This introduces some flexibility into the zero tolerance approach and reflects some of the arguments previously advanced by unsuccessful litigant health care professionals.
To see Bill 87, click here http://www.ontla.on.ca/web/bills/bills_detail.do?locale=en&BillID=4477&detailPage=bills_detail_the_bill
To see the decision of the Divisional Court in Sliwin v. CPSO (2017), click here. http://www.canlii.org/en/on/onscdc/doc/2017/2017onsc1947/2017onsc1947.html?searchUrlHash=AAAAAQAGc2xpd2luAAAAAAE&resultIndex=7
To see a list of the 26 professions regulated under the RHPA, click here https://www.ontario.ca/laws/statute/91r18#BK52 and then click on Schedule 1.
Simmie Palter is senior health law counsel at Dykeman & O’Brien LLP. Professional regulation is one of Simmie’s main areas of interests, but she provides advice in many other aspects of health law. The views expressed herein do not constitute legal advice. For more information email firstname.lastname@example.org.
 Sliwin v. College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario 2017 ONSC 1947 (CanLII, Div Ct).